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Its diversity is based on the following:. Curiously, elemental carbon is not particularly abundant. See Table 2. Nevertheless, all living things consist of organic compounds.

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Most organic chemicals are covalent compounds, which is why we introduce organic chemistry here. By convention, compounds containing carbonate ions and bicarbonate ions, as well as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, are not considered part of organic chemistry, even though they contain carbon. The simplest organic compounds are the hydrocarbons The simplest organic compound, composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.

Some hydrocarbons have only single bonds and appear as a chain which can be a straight chain or can have branches of carbon atoms also bonded to hydrogen atoms. These hydrocarbons are called alkanes saturated hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon with only single covalent bonds and existing as a chain of carbon atoms also bonded to hydrogen atoms. Each alkane has a characteristic, systematic name depending on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. These names consist of a stem that indicates the number of carbon atoms in the chain plus the ending - ane. The stem meth - means one carbon atom, so methane is an alkane with one carbon atom.

Similarly, the stem eth - means two carbon atoms; ethane is an alkane with two carbon atoms. Continuing, the stem prop - means three carbon atoms, so propane is an alkane with three carbon atoms. Figure 4.


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These hydrocarbons are called alkenes A hydrocarbon with one or more carbon—carbon double bonds. Note that the names of alkenes have the same stem as the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms in its chain but have the ending - ene. Thus, ethene is an alkene with two carbon atoms per molecule, and propene is a compound with three carbon atoms and one double bond. Alkynes A hydrocarbon with a carbon—carbon triple bond.

The names for alkynes have the same stems as for alkanes but with the ending - yne.

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For more information about alkenes and alkynes, see Chapter 13 "Unsaturated and Aromatic Hydrocarbons". The compound acetylene, with its carbon—carbon triple bond, was introduced in Section 4. Hydrocarbons are not the only compounds that can have carbon—carbon double bonds. A group of compounds called fats can have them as well, and their presence or absence in the human diet is becoming increasingly correlated with health issues.

Fats are combinations of long-chain organic compounds fatty acids and glycerol C 3 H 8 O 3. For more information on fats, see Chapter 17 "Lipids" , Section The long carbon chains can have either all single bonds, in which case the fat is classified as saturated , or one or more double bonds, in which case it is a monounsaturated or a polyunsaturated fat, respectively.

1.2: Introduction - Basic Chemistry

Saturated fats are typically solids at room temperature; beef fat tallow is one example. Mono- or polyunsaturated fats are likely to be liquids at room temperature and are often called oils. Olive oil, flaxseed oil, and many fish oils are mono- or polyunsaturated fats. In contrast, increases in unsaturated fats either mono- or polyunsaturated have been linked to a lower incidence of certain diseases.

Basic concepts of chemical reactions

Thus, there have been an increasing number of recommendations by government bodies and health associations to decrease the proportion of saturated fat and increase the proportion of unsaturated fat in the diet. Most of these organizations also recommend decreasing the total amount of fat in the diet. Recently, certain fats called trans fats have been implicated in the presence of heart disease.

These are fats from animal sources and are also produced when liquid oils are exposed to partial hydrogenation, an industrial process that increases their saturation. Some hydrocarbons have only single bonds and appear as a chain which can be a straight chain or can have branches of carbon atoms also bonded to hydrogen atoms. These hydrocarbons are called alkanes saturated hydrocarbons. Each alkane has a characteristic, systematic name depending on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

These names consist of a stem that indicates the number of carbon atoms in the chain plus the ending — ane. The stem meth — means one carbon atom, so methane is an alkane with one carbon atom. Similarly, the stem eth — means two carbon atoms; ethane is an alkane with two carbon atoms.


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  • Continuing, the stem prop — means three carbon atoms, so propane is an alkane with three carbon atoms. Figure 4. These hydrocarbons are called alkenes.

    Electronegativity

    Note that the names of alkenes have the same stem as the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms in its chain but have the ending — ene. Thus, ethene is an alkene with two carbon atoms per molecule, and propene is a compound with three carbon atoms and one double bond. The names for alkynes have the same stems as for alkanes but with the ending — yne. The compound acetylene, with its carbon—carbon triple bond, was introduced in Section 4.

    Hydrocarbons are not the only compounds that can have carbon—carbon double bonds. A group of compounds called fats can have them as well, and their presence or absence in the human diet is becoming increasingly correlated with health issues. Fats are combinations of long-chain organic compounds fatty acids and glycerol C 3 H 8 O 3. The long carbon chains can have either all single bonds, in which case the fat is classified as saturated , or one or more double bonds, in which case it is a monounsaturated or a polyunsaturated fat, respectively.

    Basic Chemistry

    Saturated fats are typically solids at room temperature; beef fat tallow is one example. Mono- or polyunsaturated fats are likely to be liquids at room temperature and are often called oils. Olive oil, flaxseed oil, and many fish oils are mono- or polyunsaturated fats. In contrast, increases in unsaturated fats either mono- or polyunsaturated have been linked to a lower incidence of certain diseases.

    Thus, there have been an increasing number of recommendations by government bodies and health associations to decrease the proportion of saturated fat and increase the proportion of unsaturated fat in the diet. Most of these organizations also recommend decreasing the total amount of fat in the diet. Recently, certain fats called trans fats have been implicated in the presence of heart disease. These are fats from animal sources and are also produced when liquid oils are exposed to partial hydrogenation, an industrial process that increases their saturation.

    Trans fats are used in many prepared and fried foods. Because they bring with them the health risks that naturally occurring saturated fats do, there has been some effort to better quantify the presence of trans fats in food products. US law now requires that food labels list the amount of trans fat in each serving. Since , the US Department of Agriculture has been promoting a food pyramid that gives a simple, visual picture of how much of what kind of foods make up a good, balanced diet.

    It recommends eating as few fats as possible. Although nutritionists recognize that some fat is necessary and largely unavoidable, even by strict vegetarians , they emphasize that a large proportion of any fat, saturated or unsaturated, in the diet is unhealthy. Even so, a difference as simple as the difference between a single and double carbon—carbon bond can have a significant impact on health. The food pyramid has suggestions for the number of daily servings of each type of food.

    A functional group is a specific structural arrangement of atoms or bonds that imparts a characteristic chemical reactivity to a molecule.

    taylor.evolt.org/wehym-bar-de-viver.php A related concept free energy , which also incorporates entropy considerations, is a very useful means for predicting the feasibility of a reaction and determining the state of equilibrium of a chemical reaction, in chemical thermodynamics. There exist only limited possible states of energy for electrons, atoms and molecules.

    These are determined by the rules of quantum mechanics , which require quantization of energy of a bound system. The phase of a substance is invariably determined by its energy and the energy of its surroundings.

    Basic Chemistry Concepts Part I

    When the intermolecular forces of a substance are such that the energy of the surroundings is not sufficient to overcome them, it occurs in a more ordered phase like liquid or solid as is the case with water H 2 O ; a liquid at room temperature because its molecules are bound by hydrogen bonds. The transfer of energy from one chemical substance to another depends on the size of energy quanta emitted from one substance.

    However, heat energy is often transferred more easily from almost any substance to another because the phonons responsible for vibrational and rotational energy levels in a substance have much less energy than photons invoked for the electronic energy transfer. Thus, because vibrational and rotational energy levels are more closely spaced than electronic energy levels, heat is more easily transferred between substances relative to light or other forms of electronic energy.