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Volume 21 , Issue 8. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

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Advanced Engineering Materials Volume 21, Issue 8. China Search for more papers by this author. Yongxian Huang Corresponding Author E-mail address: yxhuang hit. Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. For HEAs appropriate homogenization is critically important for achieving uniform distributions of the multiple principal elements in the solid solution structure owing to the sometimes low substitutional diffusion constants in these materials.

Hence the homogenization time should consider the diffusion kinetics and the dimensions of the alloys sheets — generally the larger or thicker the alloy sheets, the longer the required homogenization time.

High Entropy Alloys

The homogenized HEA plates are cut perpendicular to the hot-rolling direction to obtain some segments with smaller size for the subsequent processes and characterization Fig. The homogenized HEAs generally show homogeneous distribution of the multiple principal elements and are devoid of cracks or pores. HEAs with higher amounts of Mn e. Since the homogenized HEA plates generally exhibit a large grain size, cold-rolling Fig. Annealing is conducted for recrystallization of the microstructure and for the control of the grain sizes, hence, times and temperatures are in each case adjusted according to the targeted grain sizes and crystallographic textures.

After these microstructure-tuning processing steps, samples for microstructure investigation and performance testing are machined from the alloy segments by spark erosion. For accelerated alloy development, high efficiency of this cutting process is realized by clamping the five alloy segments on top of each other for simultaneous machining Fig.

For this purpose proper marks should be placed on the alloy sheets with varying compositions and processing parameters. Following the sample preparation, various characterizations Fig. As mentioned above, alloys with an identical bulk composition but in different processing conditions may have significantly different compositional homogeneity state, microstructure, and properties. As a typical example, Fig.

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The nominal composition of the interstitial HEA is Fe The BSE image Fig. This can be explained by the fact that regions depleted in Mn and enriched in Fe have lower stacking fault energy, hence, promoting formation of HCP phase compared to the regions enriched in Mn and depleted in Fe.

These differences in microstructure and compositional homogeneity clearly influence the mechanical properties, i. The detrimental effect of compositional inhomogeneity on mechanical properties of the coarse-grained iHEA was attributed to the preferred deformation-driven phase transformation occurring in the Mn depleted regions with lower stacking fault energy, promoting early stress-strain localization. After grain refinement, although the iHEAs with and without compositional homogeneity show similar recrystallized microstructure with identical average grain size, as presented in Fig.

This was attributed to the large local shear strains caused by the inhomogeneous planar slip in the compositionally inhomogeneous iHEA. These observations clearly suggest the importance of appropriate processing for the development of advanced HEAs.

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However, the number of alloy compositions can be probed in one RAP practice is relatively limited generally 5 compared to other combinatorial synthesis techniques discussed later. And new strategies are needed to quickly navigate the winding, narrow path between properties that depend on composition, and those that depend sensitively on both composition and exquisitely designed microstructures 15 — Acquiring new fundamental data is also essential.

Current scientific efforts are built on data and knowledge collected more than 50 years ago. This includes thermodynamic data, phase equilibria, phase transformations and phase stability; defects and defect energies; diffusion data and kinetic models; deformation mechanisms under different loading conditions; and the influence of composition on all of these properties.

These data are typically available only for materials with a single dominant solvent and provide limited benefit to CCAs. To illustrate this point, the ordered B2 intermetallic precipitate may be an important strengthening phase in RCCAs. New data documenting observed B2 compositions and formation enthalpies in RCCAs, and thermodynamic models built on this data, are essential for continued progress in this direction. Today, the ability to allocate resources to collect fundamental data is becoming increasingly difficult and relies on convincing funding agencies, publishers, and the community of the importance of doing so.


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The current lack of data for new physical models and new predictive capabilities in CCAs is a barrier to future scientific progress and collecting this data is expected to lead to new scientific discoveries. Consider, for example, the highly cited original work in high impact journals measuring the mechanical properties of CoCrFeMnNi and CoCrNi at cryogenic temperatures 8 , 18 or the measurement of chemical short-range order in Al 1.

Other surprises may be expected in measuring thermodynamic data or diffusion data or elastic constants or defect structures. By remembering the essential role of fundamental data as a major scientific contribution in its own right, and as a springboard for new scientific discoveries, the materials science community is remembering our past to inspire future progress.

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High throughput screening tests are an essential part of this strategy. By quickly illustrating trends over broad search spaces, these tests efficiently focus valuable resources on the most promising alloys. Nevertheless, these tests often bring a higher degree of uncertainty than conventional tests, while more accurate, current approaches are slower and have an inherent risk by being able to evaluate only a miniscule fraction of the possible alloys. Finally, we must begin to think differently about the scope of CCA studies.

Solid Solution Formation Criteria for High Entropy Alloys

A small handful of equiatomic or near-equiatomic compositions are commonly used as a proxy for all the alloys in a multi-component phase diagram. We need to explore a broader range of compositions in promising alloy systems.

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After nearly 15 years of study, the field has explored only seven new alloy families, each based on a palette of similar atoms 4. While this is a notable accomplishment, we have barely scratched the surface. Like elemental genetic algorithms, these new alloy families may provide unexpected results leading to the society-jarring transformations sought by the materials exploration and development community.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Nat Commun. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Miracle, Email: lim. Corresponding author. Received Mar 8; Accepted Mar Abstract Diluting a base element with small amounts of another has served as the basis for developing alloys for thousands of years since the advent of bronze. Subject terms: Mechanical properties, Metals and alloys. The historical approach to alloy development Over years ago, the first alloy developer diluted elemental copper with a small amount of tin to make bronze.

High entropy alloys—a new idea High entropy alloys HEAs were founded by two major ideas from two different research groups with two different motivations, both published in 2 , 3. New challenges While the promise is great, exploring the enormous number of HEA and CCA compositions and their microstructures is currently the biggest challenge. Notes Competing interests The author declares no competing interests. References 1.